24 kinds of metal materials commonly used in mold processing and their characteristics

Time:2022-07-05 08:40:32 / Popularity: / Source:

There are more than 100 kinds of materials that can be used for mold processing, such as metal, plastic, inorganic non-metallic and paraffin, etc. However, according to actual needs, use and demand of each material are different. Today, let's talk about mold processing. 24 most commonly used metal materials.
metal materials commonly used in mold processing 

1, 45 - high-quality carbon structural steel, is the most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel

Main features: the most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel, has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low hardenability, and is prone to cracks during water quenching. Small pieces should be quenched and tempered, and large pieces should be normalized. Application example: It is mainly used to manufacture high-strength moving parts, such as turbine impellers, compressor pistons, shafts, gears, racks and worms. Welded parts should be preheated before welding and annealed to relieve stress after welding.

2. Q235A (A3 steel) - the most commonly used carbon structural steel

Main features: high plasticity, toughness and welding performance, certain strength of cold stamping performance and good cold bending performance. Application example: Widely used in parts and welded structures with general requirements. Such as tie rods, connecting rods, pins, shafts, screws, nuts, ferrules, brackets, machine bases, building structures and bridges with little force.

3. 40Cr - one of the most widely used steel grades, belonging to alloy structural steel

Main features: After quenching and tempering treatment, it has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low temperature impact toughness and low notch sensitivity, good hardenability, high fatigue strength can be obtained when oil cooling, and parts with complex shapes are prone to cracks during water cooling. Medium cold bending plasticity, good machinability after tempering or quenching and tempering. Weldability is not good, and cracks are easy to occur. It should be preheated to 100 ~ 150 ℃ before welding, generally used in quenched and tempered state, carbonitriding and high-frequency surface quenching can also be carried out. Application example: After quenching and tempering, it is used to manufacture medium-speed and medium-load parts, such as machine tool gears, shafts, worms, spline shafts and thimble sleeves; After quenching, tempering and high-frequency surface quenching, it is used to manufacture parts with high surface hardness and wear resistance, such as gears, shafts, main shafts, crankshafts, mandrels, sleeves, pins, connecting rods, screws and nuts, intake valves, etc.; After quenching and tempering at medium temperature, it is used to manufacture heavy-duty, medium-speed impact parts, such as oil pump rotors, sliders, gears, spindles and collars, etc; After quenching and low-temperature tempering, it is used to manufacture heavy-duty, low-impact, wear-resistant parts, such as worms, spindles, shafts and collars; After carbonitriding treatment, transmission parts with large size and high low temperature impact toughness, such as shafts and gears, are produced.

4, HT150 - gray cast iron

Application examples: gear box, machine bed, box, hydraulic cylinder, pump body, valve body, flywheel, cylinder head, pulley and bearing cover, etc.

5, 35 - commonly used materials for various standard parts and fasteners

Main features: appropriate strength, good plasticity, high cold plasticity, and acceptable weldability. Local upsetting and wire drawing can be performed in cold state. Low hardenability, use after normalizing or quenching and tempering. Application example: It is suitable for manufacture of parts with small section and large load, such as crankshafts, levers, connecting rods, shackles, various standard parts and fasteners.

6. 65Mn——Commonly used spring steel

Application example: small size various flat and round springs, seat springs, spring springs, and can also be made into spring rings, valve springs, clutch reeds, brake springs, cold-coiled coil springs and circlips, etc.

7. 0Cr18Ni9 - the most commonly used stainless steel (US steel number 304, Japanese steel number SUS304)

Features and applications: It is the most widely used stainless heat-resistant steel, such as food equipment, general chemical equipment, etc.

8. Cr12 - commonly used cold work die steel (US steel number D3, Japanese steel number SKD1)

Characteristics and application: Cr12 steel is a widely used cold work die steel, which is a high-carbon and high-chromium ledeburite steel. Steel has good hardenability and good wear resistance; because carbon content of Cr12 steel is as high as 2.3%, impact toughness is poor, it is easy to be brittle, and it is easy to form uneven eutectic carbides; Due to its good wear resistance, Cr12 steel is mostly used to manufacture cold punches, punches, blanking dies, cold heading dies, cold extrusion dies, punches and dies, drill sleeves, gauges, wire drawing dies, press Impressions, thread rolling plates, drawing dies and cold stamping dies for powder metallurgy, etc.

9. DC53 - commonly used cold work die steel imported from Japan

Features and applications: high strength and toughness cold work die steel, Japan Datong Special Steel Co., Ltd. manufacturer's steel number. After high temperature tempering, it has high hardness, high toughness and good wire cutting performance. Used for precision cold stamping dies, drawing dies, wire rolling dies, cold blanking dies and punches, etc.
metal materials commonly used in mold processing 

10. DCCr12MoV - wear-resistant chrome steel

Made in China, carbon content is lower than that of Cr12 steel, Mo and V are added, unevenness of carbides is improved. Mo can reduce carbide segregation and improve hardenability, while V can refine grains and increase toughness. This steel has high hardenability, cross section can be completely hardenable below 400mm, it can still maintain good hardness and wear resistance at 300~400℃. It has higher toughness than Cr12. Volume change is small during quenching. It has high wear resistance and good comprehensive mechanical properties. Therefore, it is possible to manufacture various dies with large cross-section, complex shapes and high impact, such as ordinary drawing dies, punching dies, punching dies, blanking dies, trimming dies, piping dies, wire drawing dies, cold extrusion dies, cold cutting scissors, circular saws, standard tools and gauges, etc.

11, SKD11 - tough chromium steel

Produced by Hitachi, Ltd., Japan. Technically, casting structure in steel is improved, grains are refined, toughness and wear resistance of Cr12MoV are improved, and service life of mold is prolonged.

12. D2 - high carbon and high chromium cold work steel

American made. It has high hardenability, hardenability, wear resistance, good high temperature oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance after quenching and polishing. Heat treatment deformation is small. It is suitable to manufacture all kinds of cold working dies, cutting tools and measuring tools that require high precision and long life, such as drawing dies, cold extrusion dies and cold shearing knives.

13. SKD11 (SLD) - non-deformable toughness high chromium steel

Produced by Hitachi, Ltd., Japan. Due to increase in content of Mo and V in steel, casting structure in steel is improved, grains are refined, and carbide morphology is improved, so strength and toughness (flexural strength, deflection, impact toughness, etc.) of this steel are higher than that of SKD1 and D2, the wear resistance is also increased, and it has higher tempering resistance. Practice has proved that life of this steel mold has been improved compared with Cr12MoV. It is often used to manufacture molds with high requirements, such as drawing molds, molds for impact grinding wheels, etc.

14, DC53 - high toughness high chromium steel

Produced by Daido Co., Ltd., Japan. Heat treatment hardness is higher than SKD11. After tempering at high temperature (520~530) ℃, it can reach high hardness of 62~63HRC. In terms of strength and wear resistance, DC53 exceeds SKD11, and toughness is twice that of SKD11. Toughness of DC53 seldom occurs cracks in cold work die manufacturing, which greatly improves service life. Residual stress is small, and residual stress is reduced by turning back at high temperature. Because cracks and deformation after wire cutting are suppressed, machinability and abrasiveness exceed SKD11, and it is used for precision stamping dies, cold forging and deep drawing dies, etc.

15. SKH-9——General high-speed steel with wear resistance and high toughness

Produced by Hitachi, Ltd., Japan. For cold forging dies, slitters, drills, reamers and punches, etc.

16. ASP-23——Powder metallurgy high speed steel

Made in Sweden. Carbide distribution is extremely uniform, wear resistance, high toughness, easy processing, heat treatment dimensional stability. Used for various long-life cutting tools such as punches, deep drawing dies, drilling dies, milling cutters and shear blades.

17, P20 - size of plastic molds generally required

American made. Electrically erodible operation. Factory state is pre-hardened HB270~300, quenched hardness HRC52.

18, 718 - high-demand size plastic mold

Made in Sweden. Electrically erodible operation. Factory state pre-hardened HB290~330, quenched hardness HRC52.

19, Nak80 - high mirror, high precision plastic mold

Produced by Daido Co., Ltd., Japan. Factory state is pre-hardened HB370~400, quenched hardness HRC52.

20. S136——Anti-corrosion and mirror-polished plastic mold

Made in Sweden. Pre-hardened HB<215 in factory state, quenched hardness HRC52.

21. H13 - common die-casting mold

For aluminum, zinc, magnesium and alloy die-casting, hot stamping dies, aluminum extrusion dies, etc.

22. SKD61——Advanced die-casting mold

Produced by Hitachi, Ltd., Japan. Through ballast redissolving technology, service life is significantly improved than that of H13. For hot stamping dies, aluminum extrusion dies.

23, 8407 - advanced die-casting mold

Made in Sweden. For hot stamping dies, aluminum extrusion dies.

24. FDAC - added sulfur to enhance its ease of cutting

Factory pre-hardened hardness is HRC38~42, which can be directly engraved without quenching and tempering. It is used for small batch molds, simple molds, various resin products, sliding parts, and mold parts with short delivery time, such as zipper molds, eyeglass frame molds, etc.

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